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v model to w model

V-Model:

The V-model promotes the idea that the dynamic test stages (on the right hand side of the model) use the documentation identified on the left hand side as baselines for testing. The V-Model further promotes the notion of early test preparation.

The V-Model of testing

Early test preparation finds faults in baselines and is an effective way of detecting faults early. This approach is fine in principle and the early test preparation approach is always effective. However, there are two problems with the V-Model as normally presented.


The V-Model with early test preparation

There is rarely a perfect, one-to-one relationship between the documents on the left hand side and the test activities on the right. For example, functional specifications don’t usually provide enough information for a system test. System tests must often take account of some aspects of the business requirements as well as physical design issues for example. System testing usually draws on several sources of require…

v model to w model

V-Model:

The V-model promotes the idea that the dynamic test stages (on the right hand side of the model) use the documentation identified on the left hand side as baselines for testing. The V-Model further promotes the notion of early test preparation.

The V-Model of testing

Early test preparation finds faults in baselines and is an effective way of detecting faults early. This approach is fine in principle and the early test preparation approach is always effective. However, there are two problems with the V-Model as normally presented.


The V-Model with early test preparation

There is rarely a perfect, one-to-one relationship between the documents on the left hand side and the test activities on the right. For example, functional specifications don’t usually provide enough information for a system test. System tests must often take account of some aspects of the business requirements as well as physical design issues for example. System testing usually draws on several sources of require…

Equivalence partitioning

Equivalence partitioning:
Equivalence partitioning is a method for deriving test cases. In this method, classes of input conditions called equivalence classes are identified such that each member of the class causes the same kind of processing and output to occur.

In this method, the tester identifies various equivalence classes for partitioning. A class is a set of input conditions that are is likely to be handled the same way by the system. If the system were to handle one case in the class erroneously, it would handle all cases erroneously.

Equivalence partitioning drastically cuts down the number of test cases required to test a system reasonably. It is an attempt to get a good 'hit rate', to find the most errors with the smallest number of test cases.

To use equivalence partitioning, you will need to perform four steps:
Determining conditions to be TestedDefining TestsDesigning test casesIdentifying Final set of Test Cases

Defining Tests

A number of items must be considered when…

Cyclomatic complexity

Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric (measurement). It was developed by Thomas McCabe and is used to measure the complexity of a program. It directly measures the number of linearly independent paths through a program's source code. It is computed using a graph that describes the control flow of the program. The nodes of the graph correspond to the commands of a program. A directed edge connects two nodes if the second command might be executed immediately after the first command.


Definition

M = E − N + 2P

where

M = cyclomatic complexity
E = the number of edges of the graph
N = the number of nodes of the graph
P = the number of connected components.

"M" is alternatively defined to be one larger than the number of decision points (if/case-statements, while-statements, etc) in a module (function, procedure, chart node, etc.), or more generally a system.

Separate subroutines are treated as being independent, disconnected components of the program's control flow graph.


test coverage matrix vs traceblity matrix

Test coverage matrix:

Test coverage matrix is a checklist which ensures that the functionality of the given screen(unit) is checked in all possible combinations (positive and negative) which have not been covered in test cases. Test coverage matrix is usually prepared for a screen having large number of controls (textboxes, dropdowns, buttons etc) usually, test coverage matrix is prepared in a spread sheet having all the controls (textboxes, dropdowns, buttons etc) in the columns and then all possible entries in those fields in the rows with an ''yes'' or ''no'' in the rows against the controls listed in the columns. For example, consider a ''login'' screen wherein we have ''username'' and ''password" textfields.

While preparing test coverage matrix, the first column will be ''s.no'' and the second will be ''username" and ''password" will be the third field followed by …

Top 24 replies by programmers when their programs don't work:

Top 24 replies by programmers when their programs don't work:
24. "It works fine on MY computer"
23. "Who did you login as ?"
22. "It's a feature"
21. "It's WAD (Working As Designed)"
20. "That's weird..."
19. "It's never done that before."
18. "It worked yesterday."
17. "How is that possible?"
16. "It must be a hardware problem."
15. "What did you type in wrong to get it to crash?"
14. "There is something funky in your data."
13. "I haven't touched that module in weeks!"
12. "You must have the wrong version."
11. "It's just some unlucky coincidence."
10. "I can't test everything!"
9. "THIS can't be the source of THAT."
8. "It works, but it's not been tested."
7. "Somebody must have changed my code."
6. "Did you check for a virus on your system?"
5. "Even though it doesn…

A software BUG

Some famous quotes about Software Testing

"The last project generated a ton of paper and it was still a disaster, so this project will have to generate two tons." (Lister, DeMarco: "Peopleware")

"Testing is a skill. While this may come as a surprise to some people it is a simple fact." (Fewster, Graham: "Software Test Automation")


"To find the bugs that customers see - that are important to customers - you need to write tests that cross functional areas by mimicking typical user tasks. This type of testing is called scenario testing, task-based testing, or use-case testing." (Brian Marick)

"The more you improve the way you go about your work, the harder the work will be." (Lister, DeMarco: "Peopleware")

"Testing a product is a learning process." (Brian Marick)

"Most of us are pretty comfortable with the way we are, what we're doing and how we operate. But today the typical organization is telling the middle manager that he has to be a differen…

Istqb,cste inforamtions and training centers in India

About istqb:
The ISTQB was officially founded as an International Testing Qualifications Board in Edinburgh in November 2002 and it is responsible for the "ISTQB Certified Tester", which is an international qualification scheme.

ISTQB is the parent body responsible for approving various national boards in addition to other tasks such as defining the syllabi for various certifications.
website url:
www.indiantestingboard.com FAQ :http://208.116.30.129/faq.htm

for examination and preparation and sample question papers available in below link

will be helpful for ISTQB http://india.istqb.org/resources.htm

http://www.geekinterview.com/quiz/Testing

join yahoo groups:
in this group you can ask your queries about istqb examinations and certification related doubts and sample papers to certified testers..foundation level and advance level question keep on raised by members.

ISTQB-India@ yahoogroups. com

CSTE information:

QAI, India, the premier knowledge corporation in the software engineerin…

testing advanced interview questions

Gray Box Testing
Definition: Gray Box testing refers to the technique of testing a system with limited knowledge of the internals of the system. Gray Box testers have access to detailed design documents with information beyond requirement documents. Gray Box tests are generated based on information such as state-based models or architecture diagrams of the target system.

So typically we can say that the Gray box testing technique is a combination of both Black box and white box testing (Partially) technique.

Gray box testing is nothing but combination of both black box and
white box testing. For this tester should have knowledge of both
internal and external knowledge of logic.

what are the Essential Documents require to write manual test cases ?

-Requirement Documents
-Use Case Documents
-Any previously written test cases on eairlier
builds.
-User manuals if any
-Walkthrough notes etc.

what i CAR in testing?

CAR stands for Causal Analysis Resolution.Causal Analysis and Resolution tool is a defec…